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MODEL CHECKING 2E 2018 (H)

△看放大圖
ISBN: 9780262038836
類別: 電腦Computer Science & Engineering
出版社: MIT PRESS
作者: CLARKE JR
年份: 2018
裝訂別: 精裝
頁數: 424
定價: 1,560
售價: 1,404
原幣價: USD 75.00
狀態: 正常
Summary

An expanded and updated edition of a comprehensive presentation of the theory and practice of model checking, a technology that automates the analysis of complex systems.

Model checking is a verification technology that provides an algorithmic means of determining whether an abstract model—representing, for example, a hardware or software design—satisfies a formal specification expressed as a temporal logic formula. If the specification is not satisfied, the method identifies a counterexample execution that shows the source of the problem. Today, many major hardware and software companies use model checking in practice, for verification of VLSI circuits, communication protocols, software device drivers, real-time embedded systems, and security algorithms. This book offers a comprehensive presentation of the theory and practice of model checking, covering the foundations of the key algorithms in depth.

The field of model checking has grown dramatically since the publication of the first edition in 1999, and this second edition reflects the advances in the field. Reorganized, expanded, and updated, the new edition retains the focus on the foundations of temporal logic model while offering new chapters that cover topics that did not exist in 1999: propositional satisfiability, SAT-based model checking, counterexample-guided abstraction refinement, and software model checking. The book serves as an introduction to the field suitable for classroom use and as an essential guide for researchers.

Table Of Contents

List of Figures xiii
Foreword xix
1 Introduction to the Second Edition 1
2 Introduction to the First Edition 3
2.1 The Need for Formal Methods 3
2.2 Hardware and Software Verification 4
2.3 The Process of Model Checking 6
2.4 Temporal Logic and Model Checking 6
2.5 Symbolic Algorithms 8
2.6 Partial Order Reduction 10
2.7 Other Approaches to the State Explosion Problem 11
3 Modeling Systems 15
3.1 Transition Systems and Kripke Structures 16
3.2 Nondeterminism and Inputs 17
3.3 FirstOrder
Logic and Symbolic Representations 18
3.4 Boolean Encoding 22
3.5 Modeling Digital Circuits 23
3.6 Modeling Programs 26
3.7 Fairness 33
4 Temporal Logic 37
4.1 The Computation Tree Logic CTL 37
4.2 Syntax and Semantics of CTL 39
4.3 Temporal Logics Based on CTL 43
4.4 Temporal Logic with Set Atomic Propositions and Set Semantics 47
4.5 Fairness 47
4.6 Counterexamples 48
4.7 Safety and Liveness Properties 50
5 CTL Model Checking 53
5.1 ExplicitState
CTL Model Checking 53
5.2 ModelChecking
CTL with Fairness Constraints 58
5.3 CTL Model Checking via Fixpoint Computation 60
6 LTL and CTL* Model Checking 71
6.1 The Tableau Construction 72
6.2 LTL Model Checking with Tableau 74
6.3 Correctness Proof of the Tableau Construction 76
6.4 CTL Model Checking 80
7 Automata on Infinite Words and LTL Model Checking 85
7.1 Finite Automata on Finite Words 85
7.2 Automata on Infinite Words 87
7.3 Deterministic versus Nondeterministic B‥uchi Automata 88
7.4 Intersection of B‥uchi Automata 89
7.5 Checking Emptiness 91
7.6 Generalized B‥uchi Automata 95
7.7 Automata and Kripke Structures 96
7.8 Model Checking using Automata 97
7.9 From LTL to B‥uchi Automata 98
7.10 Efficient Translation of LTL into Automata 100
7.11 OntheFly
Model Checking 108
8 Binary Decision Diagrams and Symbolic Model Checking 113
8.1 Representing Boolean Formulas 113
8.2 Representing Kripke Structures with OBDDs 119
8.3 Symbolic Model Checking for CTL 121
8.4 Fairness in Symbolic Model Checking 124
8.5 Counterexamples and Witnesses 125
8.6 Relational Product Computations 128
9 Propositional Satisfiability 137
9.1 Conjunctive Normal Form 137
9.2 Encoding Propositional Logic into CNF 139
9.3 Propositional Satisfiability using Binary Search 140
9.4 Boolean Constraint Propagation (BCP) 144
9.5 ConflictDriven
Clause Learning 145
9.6 Decision Heuristics 148
10 SAT-Based Model Checking 153
10.1 Bounded Model Checking 153
10.2 Verifying Reachability Properties with kInduction
161
10.3 Model Checking with Inductive Invariants 164
10.4 Model Checking with Craig Interpolants 165
10.5 PropertyDirected
Reachability 170
11 Equivalences and Preorders between Structures 177
11.1 Bisimulation Equivalence 177
11.2 Fair Bisimulation 182
11.3 Preorders between Structures 182
11.4 Games for Bisimulation and Simulation 185
11.5 Equivalence and Preorder Algorithms 186
12 Partial Order Reduction 189
12.1 Concurrency in Asynchronous Systems 190
12.2 Independence and Invisibility 192
12.3 Partial Order Reduction for LTL..X 195
12.4 An Example 199
12.5 Calculating Ample Sets 202
12.6 Correctness of the Algorithm 207
12.7 Partial Order Reduction in SPIN 211
13 Abstraction 219
13.1 Existential Abstraction 220
13.2 Computation of Abstract Models 226
13.3 CounterexampleGuided
Abstraction Refinement (CEGAR) 231
14 Software Model Checking 241
14.1 Representing Programs as ControlFlow
Graphs 241
14.2 Checking Assertions using Symbolic Execution 242
14.3 Program Verification with Predicate Abstraction 244
14.4 A Full Example 248
15 Verification with Automata Learning 257
15.1 Angluin’s L Learning Algorithm 257
15.2 Compositional Reasoning 260
15.3 AssumeGuarantee
Reasoning for Communicating Components 262
15.4 Black Box Checking 270
16 Model Checking for the m-Calculus 277
16.1 Introduction 277
16.2 The Propositional mCalculus
277
16.3 Evaluating Fixpoint Formulas 281
16.4 Representing mCalculus
Formulas using OBDDs 284
16.5 Translating CTL into the mCalculus
287
17 Symmetry 291
17.1 Groups and Symmetry 291
17.2 Quotient Models 294
17.3 Model Checking with Symmetry 297
17.4 Complexity Issues 299
17.5 Empirical Results 303
18 Infinite Families of Finite-State Systems 307
18.1 Temporal Logic for Infinite Families 307
18.2 Invariants 308
18.3 Futurebus+ Example Reconsidered 310
18.4 Graph and Network Grammars 313
18.5 Undecidability Result for a Family of Token Rings 323
19 Discrete Real-Time and Quantitative Temporal Analysis 329
19.1 RealTime
Systems and RateMonotonic
Scheduling 329
19.2 ModelChecking
RealTime
Systems 330
19.3 RTCTL Model Checking 331
19.4 Quantitative Temporal Analysis: Minimum/Maximum Delay 332
19.5 Example: An Aircraft Controller 335
20 Continuous Real Time 341
20.1 Timed Automata 342
20.2 Parallel Composition 344
20.3 Modeling with Timed Automata 345
20.4 Clock Regions 346
20.5 Clock Zones 354
20.6 DifferenceBound
Matrices 360
20.7 Complexity Considerations 364
Bibliography 367
Index 399
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